Everybody hates (or at least should hate) globals. It makes your application harmful for attacks and globals can easily be overwritten (even by mistake).

Hiding functions and variables in scopes is one way to decrease the use of globals.
But globals cannot always be avoided. For instance, when you want your application to communicate with the outside world.

I like to use namespaces to make sure that I do not overwrite any globals. It also brings structure to your application. It groups related objects and functions.

var ViCreative = ViCreative || {};
ViCreative.Managers = ViCreative.Managers || {};

This creates a ViCreative.Managers namespace (or reuses it if it already exists). I usually use the domain name as first part of the namespace, just to make sure I don’t mess with other plugin/framework namespaces.
Always make sure you do not overwrite the namespace when creating/extending a namespace. Check if the namepsace already exists!!
This also allows the JavaScript files with namespace definitions to be loaded in any sequence. Now that we have a namespace, we can add objects and functions to it.

ViCreative.Managers.SearchManager = {
    _url : '',
    _value : '',

    doSearch : function() {
        // logic for searching

    init : function(options) {
        /// initialization logic here
        this._url = options.url;

    search : function(searchValue) {
        // post searchValue and return response
        this._value = searchValue;

This is already a lot better than using just some global methods, but we’re still not there yet.
All variables and methods are still out in the open. We need to create a scope to hide the private members and functions. In the example above, we only want to expose the init and search method. The doSearch method should not be called directly.

Functions have their own scope and allow you to hide variables. Wrapping the SearchManager in a function allows us to create a new scope for all variables inside the SearchManager object.

ViCreative.Managers.SearchManager = function () {
    var url = '';
    var value = '';

    var doSearch = function() {
        // logic for searching

    var init = function(options) {
        /// initialization logic here
        url = options.url;

    var search = function(searchValue) {
        // post searchValue and return response
        value = searchValue;
    return {
        init: init,
        search: search

The example above creates and executes a function and stores the result in ViCreative.Managers.SearchManager.
The function returns an object, which exposes the init and search functions. All other variables and functions are not accessible from the global scope:


Frameworks, variables and other objects from the global scopre, which are used by this function, should be provided as argument to this function to bring them to the local scope.

ViCreative.Managers.SearchManager = function ($) {

This example adds jQuery to the scope of this function and stores it in $.
Try not to pollute the global scope and hide all methods and variables which are meant to be private.

JavaScript is a first-class citizen! Treat it as such!